Posts Tagged ‘Grammar Bank’

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Av2 Grammar Bank 4C

January 25, 2013

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

a 1 correct, 2 if the camp wasn-t!weren-t so crowded, 3 correct, 4 correct, 5 if she hadn-t got injured last month, 6 correct, 7 They would have got!gotten divorced, 8 If the storm hadn-t been at night, 9 correct

b provided ! providing, 2 Even, 3 long, 4 Had, 5 condition, 6 whether, 7 even, 89 as ! so, 9 Supposing, 10 whether, 11 Had

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Av2 Grammar Bank 4B

January 25, 2013

VERB `OBJECT `INF OR GERUND

1 answering their mobiles, 2 me feel uncomfortable, 3 for you to stay, 4 J. coming, 5 you to think, 6 you to pay for, 7 you to stay, 8 you travelling a lot, 9 H. to do, 10 you being, 11 us to buy, 12 us from crossing, 13 me to call back, ¿also, if I called back?, 14 the car breaking down

=== Have a look at the Functional Translation sentences I wrote for you. They-re on the Avanzado 2 Page over here.

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Av2 = Grammar Bank = 4A

January 25, 2013

DISCOURSE MARKERS ¿2?: ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL EXPRESSIONS

a 1 Basically, 2 In any case, 3 Obviously, 4 I mean, 5 at least, 6 All in all, 7 By the way, 8 Otherwise, 9 In fact, 10 Talking of

Learn to use the words in bold, find examples: Sorry, I can-t join you. Otherwise, I-d gladly go. ! Call me at six then. Otherwise, I might forgetª

The commas after many of these are relevant, so notice that, OK+

b 1 on the whole, 2 anyway, ! in any case,, 3 After all,, 4 Talking of, 5 By the way, ! Incidentally,, 6 at least ! on the other hand,, 7 Actually, , 8 in other words, , 9 As far as salary is concerned, …, 10 Otherwise, , ¿I prefer to use the comma after Otherwise+, 11 On the one hand, … on the other…

=== Have a look at the Functional Translation sentences I wrote for you. They-re on the Avanzado 2 Page over here.

 

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Av2 = Grammar Bank = 3C

January 25, 2013

UNREAL USES OF PAST TENSES

a 1 realized, 2 [would rather we] lived, 3 I wish you were able to stay longer, 4 didn-t discuss, 5 stopped, 6 had saved, 7 paid, 8 knew, 9 had gone ¿or? been to

¿The keyboard at our school must be set  differently ¿today?, and I don-t know how to fix itªª Grrr…

b 1 I-d rather you didn-t smoke in here, 2 I wish I could afford to…, 3 If only we hadn-t painted the room blueª, 4 it-s ¿high? time you looked for a job ! you started to look !or! looking for a job, 5 If only he were less tight=fisted…, 6 Would you rather we came…+, I wish we had bought…

=== Have a look at the Functional Translation sentences I wrote for you. They-re on the Avanzado 2 Page over here.

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Av2 Grammar Bank 3B

January 25, 2013

ADDING EMPHASIS: INVERSION

These kinds of inversions are more common in written texts, for those are lacking body language and the expressivity of human voice. As you watch your weekly TV series episode, try to jot down any of these constructions if you hear themª

1 Not until years later, did I realize my mistake, 2 Never had we seen such magnificent scenery, 3 Not only did they dislike her, but they also hated her family [Alternative: Not only did they dislike her == they also hated her family], 4 Only when we had read his autobiography, did we understand, 5 Hardly had we started to eat, when we heard someone knocking at the door, 6 Rarely have I read such a badly written novel, 7 Not until the sun set, did we put doown our tools and rest…, 8 Not only was the hotel room depressing, but it was cold as well [alternative: Not only … == it was cold as well], 9 Only when it was unusually cold, did they light the fire, 10 No sooner had he gone to sleep than there was a knock on the door, 11 Only then did I realize the full scale of the disaster, 12 Scarcely had I destroyed !distrOid! the evidence when the police arrived, 13 Never has he regretted the decision he took on that day, 14 Only when I had spoken to the manager was the problem sorted out.

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Av2 Grammar Bank 3A

January 25, 2013

SPECULATION AND DEDUCTION

a 1 Someone must’ve moved them
2 correct, 3 I think it could/may/might* (possibility) be the neigbour’s cat, 4 correct, 5 She definitely won’t like it (because “will” is negative, cf. She’ll definitely like it), 6 Julian is bound to be late, 7 correct, 8 I think she must still be studying (also, she must be still studying), 9 correct

In theory, you are meant /ment/ to use “might” for a more remote possibility than that indicated by “may”, but in practice, we also use “might” when we feel we want to avoid sounding intrusive, or wish to be tactful (for whichever reason). This means, for instance, I would say “It might be the neighbours’ cat” with “might” because I’m actually explaining the possible reason for a noise, attributing it to someone (the neighbours, who are responsible for the cat). If I don’t feel that, I’ll probably say “It could be…” or “It may be…” So as you can see, subjectivity plays a role when we use the modals (and also some tenses).

b 1 He probably won’t have time to call in and see us (“probably” goes where it goes because “will” is negative), 2 She may never get over the break-up, 3 They should’ve heard the news by now, 4 I can’t have left my credit card in the restaurant, 5 Your sister is bound to like the scarf, 6 The company director is unlikely to resign despite…, 7 He must’ve been in love with her… 8 Did you definitely lock the back door? (alternative wording for the same idea: Are you positive you locked the back door?), 9 it’s likely the couple will get divorced soon.

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Av 2 – Grammar Bank 2B – Distancing (or Hedging)

January 24, 2013

Elena’s request

2B DISTANCING (also called Hedging – see my collection of Useful Language on TP)

a 1 It seems/appears that – Reminder: people be careful with “It” subjects, because often people say or write “I” instead of “It”.
2 It would appear that, 3 Mark seems/appears to have, 4 but he is said / supposed to be, 5 According to some sources, 6 His death seems to / appears to have been from natural causes, 7 There are thought to be, 8 are believed to have had, 9 that (or nothing)

b 1 It would appear / seem that people who work night shifts…
2 The prisoners may have escaped to France, 3 The PM is expected to make a statement this afternoon, 4 It has been announced (by the company) that the new drug will go on sale shortly, 5 Improvements in diet and lifestyle are said / believed to be responsible for the rise in life expentancy, 6 According to the manual, 7 The government may / might be / appears to be intending…, 8 It has been suggested (that) the painting is a fake, 9 There seem / appear to be more cyclists…

For you to mull this over and read out too…

It seems there is going to be a transport strike next week.
There might/may/could be a transport strike next week.
There’ll (probably be) a transport strike next week.
Apparently, there’re’ll be a transport strike next week.
People say there’s going to be…
I’ve heard /aiv herd/ there is going to be a transport strike…
Did you hear /did iú hier/ there’s gonna be a…? (when it was said, in US American English; in British English, if the person is in a different type chunk, e.g., not the morning anymore)
Have you heard /hav iú herd/ there’s gonna be…? (present perfect: today, still on)

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